Coalition partners use 'red cards' to protect civilian populations in Iraq:
"Colonel Mike Kelly, writing in the Australian Army Journal, says the junior partners in the coalition forces succeeded in reducing civilian casualties and reinforcing the legitimacy of the invasion to topple Saddam Hussein...
..."During Operation Iraqi Freedom legal differences in assessing legitimate targets, tended to be resolved by the use of the 'red card'," Colonel Kelly writes.
"This card involved the coalition partners being able to indicate their disapproval in their targeting or tactics in any mission that ran contrary to their legal obligations."
He added: "The United States generally accepted these decisions ... (it was) prepared to modify its approach in the interest of harmony with its military partners.
"The red card system assisted in the management of both international and domestic perceptions of the legitimacy of operations in Iraq - perceptions that were important given the brisk debate over the decision to use force in the first place."